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RealFect-Turbo™ Transfection Reagent (One-Size-Fit-All)

The RealFect-Turbo™ transfection reagent is a new generation multi-utility transfection reagent. The toxicity is extremely and It shows remarkable efficiency for transfection of plasmid DNAs, siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides to many cell types. It also promotes retroviral infectivity 10 to 1000 times.

Key Features:

  • Extremely low toxicity
  • High efficiency to DNA and siRNA transfection
  • High performance in many types of cells, include established cell lines and primary cells
  • Suitable for standard transfection, suspension transfection and reverse transfection methods
  • No pre-planted cells required for suspension transfection
  • Broad nucleic acid to reagent ratios, no need to optimize conditions
  • Worked well in serum-containing medium
  • Increases the Infectivity of Retroviral and Lentiviral Vectors about 10~1000 times

Catalog_No. Product Unit Price
RF5002-1 RealFect-Turbo, maximum strength for DNA/RNA in vitro tranfection. more info ...
RF5002-2 RealFect-Turbo, maximum strength for DNA/RNA in vitro tranfection. more info ...



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GFP Expression in Different Types of Cells using RealFect Transfection Reagent
Established cell lines and primary cells were transfected with a green fluorescent protein reporter plasmid using RealFECT. Cells were viewed under fluorescence microscopy 24 hours after transfection. (Cell lines:HepG2, COS-1, BHK21, HeLa, HCT116, CV-1, NIH3T3, MCF-7; primary cells:HUVEC, rat pulmonary endothelial cells.)



Introduction to Transfection:

Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing nucleic acids into cells. The term is often used for non-viral methods in eukaryotic cells. It may also refer to other methods and cell types, although other terms are preferred: "transformation" is more often used to describe non-viral DNA transfer in bacteria, non-animal eukaryotic cells, including plant cells. In animal cells, transfection is the preferred term as transformation is also used to refer to progression to a cancerous state (carcinogenesis) in these cells. Transduction is often used to describe virus-mediated DNA transfer.

The word transfection is a blend of trans- and infection. Genetic material (such as supercoiled plasmid DNA or siRNA constructs), or even proteins such as antibodies, may be transfected.

Transfection of animal cells typically involves opening transient pores or "holes" in the cell membrane, to allow the uptake of material. Transfection can be carried out using calcium phosphate, by electroporation, by cell squeezing or by mixing a cationic lipid with the material to produce liposomes, which fuse with the cell membrane and deposit their cargo inside.

Transfection can result in unexpected morphologies and abnormalities in target cells.

The meaning of the term has evolved. The original meaning of transfection was "infection by transformation," i.e., introduction of DNA (or RNA) from a prokaryote-infecting virus or bacteriophage into cells, resulting in an infection. Because the term transformation had another sense in animal cell biology (a genetic change allowing long-term propagation in culture, or acquisition of properties typical of cancer cells), the term transfection acquired, for animal cells, its present meaning of a change in cell properties caused by introduction of DNA.

Methods

There are various methods of introducing foreign DNA into a eukaryotic cell: some rely on physical treatment (electroporation, cell squeezing, nanoparticles, magnetofection), other on chemical materials or biological particles (viruses) that are used as carriers.

Chemical-based transfection

Chemical-based transfection can be divided into several kinds: cyclodextrin, polymers, liposomes, or nanoparticles (with or without chemical or viral functionalization. See below).

One of the cheapest methods uses calcium phosphate, originally discovered by F. L. Graham and A. J. van der Eb in 1973 (see also ). HEPES-buffered saline solution (HeBS) containing phosphate ions is combined with a calcium chloride solution containing the DNA to be transfected. When the two are combined, a fine precipitate of the positively charged calcium and the negatively charged phosphate will form, binding the DNA to be transfected on its surface. The suspension of the precipitate is then added to the cells to be transfected (usually a cell culture grown in a monolayer). By a process not entirely understood, the cells take up some of the precipitate, and with it, the DNA. This process has been a preferred method of identifying many oncogenes.

Other methods use highly branched organic compounds, so-called dendrimers, to bind the DNA and get it into the cell.

A very efficient method is the inclusion of the DNA to be transfected in liposomes, i.e. small, membrane-bounded bodies that are in some ways similar to the structure of a cell and can actually fuse with the cell membrane, releasing the DNA into the cell. For eukaryotic cells, transfection is better achieved using cationic liposomes (or mixtures), because the cells are more sensitive. See lipofection for more details.

Another method is the use of cationic polymers such as DEAE-dextran or polyethylenimine. The negatively charged DNA binds to the polycation and the complex is taken up by the cell via endocytosis.

Non chemical methods

Electroporation (Gene electrotransfer) is a popular method, where transient increase in the permeability of cell membrane is achieved when the cells are exposed to short pulses of an intense electric field.

Cell squeezing is a novel method invented in 2013 by Dr. Armon Sharei, Prof. Bob Langer and Prof. Klavs Jensen at MIT. It enables delivery of molecules into cells by a gentle squeezing of the cell membrane. It is a high throughput vector-free microfluidic platform for intracellular delivery. It eliminates the possibility of toxicity or off-target effects as it does not rely on exogenous materials or electrical fields.

Sonoporation uses high-intensity ultrasound to induce pore formation in cell membranes. This pore formation is attributed mainly to the cavitation of gas bubbles interacting with nearby cell membranes since is enhanced by the addition of ultrasound contrast agent, a source of cavitation nuclei.

Optical transfection is a method where a tiny (~1 um diameter) hole is transiently generated in the plasma membrane of a cell using a highly focused laser. This technique was first described in 1984 by Tsukakoshi et al., who used a frequency tripled Nd:YAG to generate stable and transient transfection of normal rat kidney cells. In this technique, one cell at a time is treated, making it particularly useful for single cell analysis.

Protoplast fusion is a technique in which transformed bacterial cells are treated with lysozyme in order to remove the cell wall. Following this, fusogenic agents (e.g., Sendai virus, PEG, or electroporation) are used in order to fuse the protoplast carrying the gene of interest with the target recipient cell. A major disadvantage of this method is that bacterial components are non-specifically introduced into the target cell as well.

Impalefection is a method of introducing DNA bound to a surface of a nanofiber that is inserted into a cell. This approach can also be implemented with arrays of nanofibers that are introduced into large numbers of cells and intact tissue.

Hydrodynamic delivery In mice and rats, but to a lesser extent in larger animals, DNA most often in plasmids, including transposons, can be delivered to the liver using hydrodynamic injection that involves infusion of a relatively large volume in the blood in less than 10 seconds; nearly all of the DNA is expressed in the liver by this procedure.

Particle-based methods

A direct approach to transfection is the gene gun, where the DNA is coupled to a nanoparticle of an inert solid (commonly gold) which is then "shot" directly into the target cell's nucleus.

Magnetofection, or Magnet assisted transfection is a transfection method, which uses magnetic force to deliver DNA into target cells. Nucleic acids are first associated with magnetic nanoparticles. Then, application of magnetic force drives the nucleic acid particle complexes towards and into the target cells, where the cargo is released.

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